The left back, 22, made 39 appearances for the Arnhem-based outfit in all competitions last season and has returned to the Eredivisie side for a third time
The 22-year-old made 31 Eredivisie appearances for the Dutch side last term as it finished fourth in the league, securing Europa League qualification in the process.
Van Aanholt has made just eight senior appearances for Chelsea since signing on junior terms from PSV in 2007 and also spent half of the 2011-12 season at the Gelredome.
A statement on Vitesse's official website read: "Patrick van Aanholt will play at Vitesse again next season.
"The 22-year-old defender has been loaned for a season from Chelsea. Van Aanholt begins his third season in Arnhem."
The move follows Chelsea's capture of Vitesse midfielder Marco van Ginkel, who signed a five-year deal at Stamford Bridge on Friday.
Van Aanholt was part of Netherlands' squad for the Under-21 European Championship in Israel and played in a 3-0 group stage loss against eventual winners Spain.