The 26-year-old France international has put pen to paper on a contract until the summer of 2017 with last season's Ligue 1 runner-up
The France international was in sparkling form for Lille last season, scoring 12 goals and racking up 18 assists in 38 Ligue 1 games.
Marseille secured Champions League football next season with a second-placed league finish and Payet - who has joined for an undisclosed fee - hailed the club's eagerness to sign him as key in his decision to move.
"In the early discussions with the President and Jose Anigo (sporting director), I felt that I was really wanted," the winger told the club's official website.
"This is a great family and I hope that we will ensure that the family is performing this season.
"There is everything in place for success here."
A number of Payet's international teammates already ply their trade with Marseille, which Payet believes will be crucial in helping him settle in.
"I already know Rod Fanni and Souley Diawara. It will allow me to adapt much faster," he added
"This is important for integration. Now that I have signed, I cannot wait to start training and playing in games."