The two goalkeepers set to face off in the World Cup final have joined the Costa Rica hero on the shortlist, with Mexico's Guillermo Ochoa and the USA's Tim Howard missing out.
Neuer has started every game for finalist Germany, keeping a clean sheet on three occasions and impressing with his "sweeper keeper" performance against Algeria in the round of 16.
Levante's Navas kept two clean sheets in the group stage as Costa Rica topped Group D ahead of Uruguay, Italy and England, before saving a penalty in the last-16 shootout win over Greece and pulling off a number of saves in the quarterfinal loss to Netherlands.
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Romero managed four clean sheets during Argentina's run to the final and stopped Ron Vlaar and Wesley Sneidjer from the spot in the shootout victory over Netherlands in the semifinals.
Guillermo Ochoa misses out despite consistently impressing during Mexico's run to the knockout stage, while Tim Howard is also overlooked despite a record-breaking 16 saves during USA's match against Belgium.
FIFA's Technical Study Group, comprised of selected coaches and soccer analysts, will determine the winner after Sunday's World Cup final.