The Bayer Leverkusen star was widely expected to be named in Joachim Low's final 23-man squad but picked up a thigh injury during training in the national team camp in South Tyrol.
Bender has spoken of his disappointment at missing out and says he will have to spend some time away from football to recover.
"It's a dream that has been broken," he told Bild. "I need to process it first. I have to go for a rest. I've only just left the national team. I cannot tell you how I'll deal with it. I need a couple of days of rest and distance.
"I've been preparing myself and looking forward to it forever."
Bender's injury, along with that of his twin brother Sven, has fueled speculation that Borussia Monchengladbach's Christoph Kramer could make the trip to Brazil.