Major names such as Arjen Robben, Robin van Persie, Wesley Sneijder, Nigel de Jong and Klaas-Jan Huntelaar star in the squad which will look to make amends for its group stage Euro 2012 exit this summer.
Rafael van der Vaart is the most notable absentee but his omission was already confirmed after he picked up a calf injury in training with the Oranje setup this week.
PHOTOS: USA vs. Azerbaijan | World Cup teams
Jasper Cillessen, Michel Vorm and Tim Krul were chosen as the three goalkeepers by future Manchester United boss Van Gaal, who sent home uncapped PSV shot-stopper Jeroen Zoet.
Chelsea fullback Patrick van Aanholt and young Manchester City center back Karim Rekik, both of whom spent 2013-14 on loan in the Eredivisie, were also axed from the final Dutch squad.
Youthful forwards Jean-Paul Boetius and Quincy Promes - who have a cap each - will not be on the plane to Brazil, while uncapped midfielder Tonny Vilhena is the final name to be excluded from Van Gaal's final selection.
The squad chosen will aim to qualify from a tough group which contain world and European champion Spain, strong South American side Chile and Asian qualifier Australia.
Goalkeepers: Jasper Cillessen (Ajax), Michel Vorm (Swansea City), Tim Krul (Newcastle United)
Defenders: Paul Verhaegh (Augsburg), Daryl Janmaat (Feyenoord), Joel Veltman (Ajax), Stefan de Vrij (Feyenoord), Ron Vlaar (Aston Villa), Bruno Martins Indi (Feyenoord), Terence Kongolo (Feyenoord), Daley Blind (Ajax)
Midfielders: Leroy Fer (Norwich City), Nigel de Jong (AC Milan), Jordy Clasie (Feyenoord), Jonathan de Guzman (Swansea City), Georginio Wijnaldum (PSV), Wesley Sneijder (Galatasaray)
Forwards: Arjen Robben (Bayern Munich), Robin van Persie (Manchester United), Klaas-Jan Huntelaar (Schalke), Dirk Kuyt (Fenerbahce), Jeremain Lens (Dynamo Kiev), Memphis Depay (PSV)