The ex-Arsenal forward has scored 34 goals in 74 games for the Oranje and took the armband for the first time in a 3-0 friendly win over Indonesia on Friday.
"I'm very honored with this," van Persie told reporters after the game. "On Monday the coach [Louis van Gaal] asked me if I wanted to be captain. It's very flattering so I accepted.
"This choice is not only for now but for a longer period."
Arjen Robben's late goal and Siem de Jong's double gave van Persie’s side a 3-0 win over their opponents in Jakarta and the United star was pleased with their performance.
"It was a tough match because of the heat and breathing was pretty heavy," van Persie said. "But, with this in mind, we did very well, I think.
"You can't always put pressure on your opponent. We want to play our own game and sometimes you have to let the opponent come.
"The atmosphere was very nice. I've been in these countries before with my clubs and it's always nice to see all these people react so enthusiastically."