Both Fifa Ballon d'Or nominees have been called up for friendlies against Japan and Colombia, while Ajax youngster Joel Veltman could make his debut.
Robben and Van Persie have been plagued by minor injury problems in recent weeks and there were doubts as to whether the duo would feature for Oranje this month.
Nevertheless, Van Gaal has opted to call up both attackers, while other big names such as Gregory van der Wiel, Nigel de Jong and Kevin Strootman have all made the cut, too.
Luciano Narsingh returns to the squad after a one-year absence due to injury, while Maarten Stekelenburg has also been recalled after shaking off a shoulder problem.
Ajax youngster Joel Veltman, who impressed in the Champions League game against Celtic midweek, could make his Holland debut after receiving a call-up for the first time.
Meanwhile, Wesley Sneijder and Klaas-Jan Huntelaar are both unavailable due to injury, while Michel Vorm, Leroy Fer and Paul Verhaegh have all been dropped despite making the provisional squad.
|Tim Krul||Newcastle United|
|Ron Vlaar||Aston Villa|
|Bruno Martins Indi||Feyenoord|
|Stefan de Vrij||Feyenoord|
|Gregory van der Wiel||Paris Saint-Germain|
|Rafael van der Vaart||Hamburg|
|Nigel de Jong||AC Milan|
|Jonathan de Guzman||Swansea City|
|Robin van Persie||Manchester United|
|Arjen Robben||Bayern Munich|
|Jeremain Lens||Dynamo Kiev|