The 30-year-old picked up the injury in the Blues' 3-2 loss to Newcastle and will now miss the game against Turkey after only recently returning to first-team action.
Czech Republic travels to Manisa on Wednesday to play against Abdullah Avci's side and head coach Michal Bilek has ruled the experienced shot-stopper out of contention for the trip after a scan revealed that there was a fracture on his little finger, with the extent of the injury layoff as yet unknown.
"Petr is not flying with us," Bilek told reporters.
Cech has represented his country 98 times at international level since his debut in 2002 and is Czech Republic’s second most-capped player behind Karel Poborsky.
Bilek's side is currently third in its World Cup 2014 qualifying group, trailing leader Italy by five points and Bulgaria by a point as the team seeks to book a place for the tournament in Brazil.