The 26-year-old was sent off against Celta Vigo in the Copa del Rey on Wednesday night and then unleashed a volley of abuse at referee Ayza Gamez.
He has been banned for one game for the red card, and a further four for repeatedly accusing the referee and his assistants of being "shameless crooks" and continually giving poor decisions against los Blancos.
The ban will start this Saturday, meaning he will miss league games against Osasuna, Valencia and Getafe, as well as both legs of the Copa del Rey quarterfinals against los Che.
Gamez recorded the incident in his post-match report, and although Ramos apologized afterwards, the RFEF has taken a dim view of his actions.
With Pepe out for over a month due to ankle surgery and Fabio Coentrao and Marcelo working their way back to fitness, Jose Mourinho will be short of defensive reinforcements in the coming weeks.