The Blaugrana coach underwent an operation on Thursday morning after it was announced he had suffered a relapse of a tumor he had last year.
The 44-year-old has now successfully come through the initial procedure, with the club confirming his length of convalescence will now depend on how the situation evolves.
A statement on the club's official website read: "The operation on Tito Vilanova has been made according to the schedule provided. The clinical duration determine the duration of recovery.
"In response to the patient's wishes, please respect the privacy and confidentiality of this process.
"Remember that, in the absence of Tito Vilanova, Jordi Roura will sit on the bench for the first team."
Assistant coach Roura will take charge of the team until further notice, beginning with Barcelona's match with Valladolid on Saturday.