The 27-year-old center back joins New England on loan from Swiss club FC Sion and is the club's fourth signing this offseason.
"We're pleased to add Jose to our squad," Revolution general manager Michael Burns said in a statement. "We've been open about our desire to add another defender this offseason. With experience throughout Europe's top leagues, we believe Jose will come in and be a positive addition to our club's defense."
Goncalves, 27, joins homegrown signing Scott Caldwell and international signings Andy Dorman and Khalifa Cisse as offseason additions for the Revs, who finished in ninth place in the 10-team MLS Eastern Conference in 2012 and conceded 44 goals in 34 matches.
Goncalves gives the club another necessary option in central defense, and while he has experience in Europe for club's such as Scotland's Heart of Midlothian and Germany's FC Nurnberg, he has had his playing time limited in recent seasons. The 6-foot-2 defender has appeared in just seven matches since the start of the 2011-12 season and has played just six minutes for Sion this season, doing so in an Oct. 7 match against Luzern.