Atletico's on-loan Belgian keeper was the star as his team picked up only their second point away from home this season
The home side made the stronger start to this game with Isco looking to get on the ball at every opportunity. It was his early probing of the Atletico defense that led to a chance for Diego Buonanotte, which resulted in the first corner of the game.
Buonanotte then forced a fine save from Thibaut Courtois after cutting inside Luis Perea down the left and looking to curl an effort round the Belgian goalkeeper from a tight angle.
Atletico was struggling to deal with Malaga's vibrant frontline, with Buonanotte, Isco and Rondon all causing problems both on and off the ball.
Courtois then pulled off a brilliant save from a Rondon header that was heading for the top corner after Santi Cazorla had whipped in a fine outswinging free kick from the right hand side.
Despite enjoying little possession in the opening half hour Atletico came within the width of the woodwork from taking the lead when Diego had an effort from outside the area deflect off Welligton and onto Willy Caballero's crossbar.
Cazorla's set pieces for the home side proved dangerous as the half wore on, particularly minutes before halftime when his free- kick from long range was inadvertently blocked on its way in by his own teammate Jeremy Toulalan.
The two teams went in at half-time with the game scoreless, yet this nearly changed just minutes into the second half, only for the referee to rule that Radamel Falcao had fouled Caballero in the process of heading Diego's corner into the back of the net.
As Atletico looked to get its first win away from home in La Liga this season Malaga spent far longer on the back foot in the second half than they had in the first.
Malaga still looked a threat however, and it took some impressive clearances from Atletico's center backs to stop Rondon from taking advantage of some enticing crosses from the likes of Isco and Cazorla.
Cazorla was then on hand at the other end of the pitch to keep out Diego Godin's goalbound header after the Atletico substitute Arda Turan had whipped an inviting inswinging corner in from the right.
Simeone's first match in charge saw Atletico keep a well-deserved clean sheet and helped claim a point from this game meaning the team remaisn in 10th place in La Liga, while Malaga moves up a place to 6th.