The midfielder was sent off to compound a disappointing Friday evening for Laurent Blanc's side.
The visitors were missing influential striker Zlatan Ibrahimovic, Thiago Motta and captain Thiago Silva.
Edinson Cavani — having opened his account for the season against Bastia last weekend — came close with a long-range free kick before the interval as the hosts successfully frustrated PSG.
Having allowed six goals to Rennes in its last outing, Pascal Dupraz's defense was in much better shape in its return to Annecy and was boosted by Cabaye picking up a second yellow card shortly after the hour.
With a man advantage, the hosts saw out the draw to pick up their first point of the new campaign as PSG's stuttering start to its quest for a third-consecutive league title continues.MORE: Balotelli in photos | Done deals | WAGs
Blaise Matuidi's burst and cross from the left signaled danger for Evian in the opening five minutes before the hosts managed to clear as PSG quickly settled into its rhythm.
However, Blanc's men struggled to break down an Evian side that appeared more than happy to sit deep and allow their opponents plenty of possession.
Cavani's tame 25-yard free kick marked the visitors' first attempt on target after 22 minutes, shortly before Nicki Bille Nielsen's dipping set piece effort threatened Salvatore Sirigu at the other end.
Uruguay striker Cavani came close again before the half-hour as he twisted away from two defenders, only for Jesper Hansen to keep out his strike.
However, the chances dried up before the break, with Evian able to successfully stifle the champions - who struggled to muster too much of note without the talismanic Ibrahimovic.
PSG continued to dominate possession after the break but frustration was evident among Blanc's men as Cavani was ruled offside, having been sent through on goal, before Cabaye picked up a second yellow card.
A late challenge on Bille Nielsen saw him sent off for the first time in a PSG shirt to sum up a disappointing night for the Parisians.
Cavani and Nicolas Benezet had opportunities for either side late but it ended goalless as Evian again frustrated the title holders at the Parc des Sports.