Toffees held to draw in pulsating tie at Goodison Park following late goal, Osman and Baines had netted earlier for the home side either side of a magnificent Petrov strike.
The home side had twice taken the lead through Leon Osman and a Leighton Baines penalty. Stiliyan Petrov scored Aston Villa's first goal after halftime.
The game had taken place amid protests from Everton supporters against the recent cash troubles under Bill Kenwright's ownership.
The Toffees started much the better side, however, and could have been ahead within the first 10 minutes as Osman hit the post and Jagielka saw his effort cleared off the line.
Osman was not to be denied 10 minutes later, latching on to Tim Cahill's superb reverse pass to slot home from 12 yards.
Everton continued in a similar vein throughout the first half and should have gone into the half with more than a one-goal lead.
Villa came out for the second half with much more purpose about its game, but it was unable to find a way past an immense Sylvain Distin at the back for Everton.
It took something special to get Villa back on level terms. Petrov picked the ball up 30 yards from goal and under no pressure from Everton players, hit a superb shot into the corner of Tim Howard's goal that gave the American no chance.
The scores were not level for long. An Everton corner was headed toward the goal by Cahill and Shay Given made a fantastic save but Fabian Delph bundled Jagielka over in the box from the resulting melee and Michael Oliver awarded Everton a spot kick.
Baines dispatched the penalty coolly to restore Everton's advantage.
Aston Villa pressed for an equalizer and the club was rewarded seven minutes from time when Marc Albrighton's left-wing cross was nodded home by Agbonlahor.
Everton had late chances to snatch a winner but substitute Vellios and Fellaini were unable to beat Given.