The home side did equalize but the goal was ruled out because of a foul on Luca Toni.
Alessandro Matri put the Bianconeri ahead after 20 minutes with a smart finish, but Robert Acquafresca leveled for the hosts just after half time, before Matri grabbed his second on 75 minutes then ten minutes later Luca Toni put the game beyond doubt with a magnificent header.
The stage was set for Matri who led the Juve front line with Jorge Martinez playing just behind him, while Giorgio Chiellini moved to left-back as Gigi Del Neri shuffled his pack.
The Sardinians were first out the blocks as Radja Nainggolan had a long range effort saved by Gianluigi Buffon, before an Andrea Cossu effort flew just wide. Cossu, in particular was targeting Frederik Sorensen on the right side early on.
However despite a lively start, Cagliari were sliced open by the Bianconeri as Claudio Marchisio closed in on goal but a brave Michael Agazzi dived low to deny the midfielder.
But It took only 20 minutes for the former Cagliari man to break the deadlock, Milos Krasic threaded through a superb pass from the left, that was expertly flicked on by Jorge Martínez on its way through to Matri, who took a touch and fired past Agazzi.
Clearly settled by the goal, the Bianconeri took control of the game as Krasic showed his pace against Lorenzo Ariaudo on numerous occasions, while Marchisio on the left was denied by a last gasp Michele Canini sliding tackle.
The home side did force Buffon into a few misjudgements, especially on set pieces but never really threatened the Juventus goal as the half came to a close.
After five minutes of the second half the game was level after Acquafresca was left unmarked and stretched to meet a Cossu cross which he then tapped past a despairing Buffon.
Then moments later Cossu caught the Juve defense by surprise with a quick free kick, but Daniele Conti's volley sailed over the bar.
Matri also went close to getting another, when he headed into Agazzi's hands but on 75 minutes he did get his second of the match, when Chiellini played over a perfect cross for Matri to smash a volley home from close range.
In a dramatic end, Cagliari thought they had equalized when Nene headed home from a freekick, but Canini was deemed to have fouled Luca Toni when the set piece was taken.
Then minutes later Luca Toni scored a spectacular header from 18 yards to put the game beyond Roberto Donadoni's men.
Juve will be hoping to build on the result but face a tough tie away to Inter next Sunday, meanwhile Cagliari welcome Chievo to the Sant'Elia next weekend.