The hosts settled for a point after scoring the opener but still moved out of the relegation zone with the draw.
The Lancashire club headed into Tuesday's encounter, which marked manager Sean Dyche's 100th game in charge, having claimed seven points from its previous three outings.
And Burnley delivered another performance that suggested it is steadily adapting to life in the Premier League by standing firm against Alan Pardew's side.
It had looked as if last season's Championship runner-up would claim all three points when midfielder George Boyd's vicious effort gave it the lead in the 34th minute.
But Newcastle, prior to Saturday's 1-0 defeat to West Ham, has been one of the top flight's top sides in recent weeks and fought back to earn a share of the spoils.
Senegal striker Papiss Cisse sealed a point for the visitors three minutes into the second half, converting Daryl Janmaat's cross to ensure a stalemate, although that proved to be enough for Burnley to move out of the drop zone and above Hull City into 17th.
After the weekend's last-gasp heroics against Aston Villa, Burnley made the stronger start to proceedings at Turf Moor and forced Rob Elliot into action after eight minutes as the Newcastle goalkeeper tipped Danny Ings' close-range effort over the crossbar.
Ashley Barnes then fired over following more good buildup play from the hosts before Newcastle finally offered some evidence of an attacking threat as Sammy Ameobi drew a near-post save from Tom Heaton.
Heaton produced heroics in the 32nd minute to preserve parity, the Burnley shot-stopper making a fine one-on-one stop to deny Mehdi Abeid, who was called into the side as part of two changes made by Pardew.
And Newcastle were immediately punished for Abeid's inability to convert, Boyd meeting Ings' knockdown with a drive beyond the unsighted Elliot.
Newcastle's lack of a response and apparent fallibility at the back will have only encouraged Burnley, and Dyche's men would have doubled their lead had David Jones not lashed high and wide after being put through on goal in first-half injury time.
Pardew made two changes after the interval, bringing on Remy Cabella and Steven Taylor for Ayoze Perez and Mike Williamson, and Newcastle almost instantly got back into the game as Cisse leveled matters.
The 29-year-old diverted the ball home with his knee from 6 yards after Janmaat's cross had been cleverly flicked into his path by Yoan Gouffran at the near post.
Left back Stephen Ward was taken off on a stretcher in the 66th minute and replaced by Ben Mee in a further blow to Burnley's cause yet, despite that defensive reshuffle, Newcastle labored in its efforts to complete the turnaround.
Both sides lacked spark in their respective search for winners, the visitors especially wasteful as they now turn their attentions to the weekend's visit of Premier League pacesetters Chelsea to St. James' Park.