The Southampton pair are part of Roy Hodgson's party as they prepare for two Wembley friendlies, while the Arsenal midfielder is also included despite an injury
Rodriguez is also joined by team-mate and Saints captain Adam Lallana, who was an unused substitute when he was last summoned by the Three Lions.
"Adam Lallana has been with us a long time ago for a qualifier; he came in late but didn't play," Hodgson told the press. "We've been following him very closely and he has been a major part in Southampton's rise to the top of the table.
"He is an important cog in that team and it was obvious to pick him.
"With [Danny] Welbeck potentially injured, I see in Rodriguez someone who could fill the Welbeck role. He is a wide forward who likes to attack people with or without the ball.
"He's played very well for Southampton and it is an interesting opportunity for us to know a little but more about him, as up to now our information has been gleaned from the stands."
Arsenal midfielder Jack Wilshere also makes Hodgson's party, despite injury troubles that have kept him out of action in both the Premier League and Champions League for the Gunners, while under-fire Joe Hart has competition from John Ruddy and Fraser Forster.
The Three Lions will first take on Chile on November 15 before facing Germany four days later.
England squad in full:
Goalkeepers: Fraser Forster, Joe Hart, John Ruddy
Defenders: Leighton Baines, Gary Cahill, Ashley Cole, Kieran Gibbs, Phil Jagielka, Glen Johnson, Phil Jones, Chris Smalling, Kyle Walker
Midfielders: Ross Barkley, Michael Carrick, Tom Cleverley, Steven Gerrard, Jordan Henderson, Adam Lallana, Frank Lampard, James Milner, Andros Townsend, Jack Wilshere
Forwards: Jermain Defoe, Rickie Lambert, Jay Rodriguez, Wayne Rooney, Daniel Sturridge, Danny Welbeck