The Chelsea striker has previously represented the Indomitable Lions on the game's grandest stage in 1998, 2002 and 2010, meaning should he feature in this summer's tournament, the 33-year-old will draw level with Rigobert Song and Jacques Songo'o, both of whom partook in a Cameroonian record four tournaments.
Eto'o, who performed a dramatic u-turn on his decision to retire from international football last year, will also have his eye on Roger Milla's national goals record at the finals. The iconic forward netted five times across three World Cups, but Eto'o is just two goals in arrears.
Elsewhere, Fabrice Olinga has also been included in Finke's 23-strong squad - despite having only five caps to his name.
Hamburg's Jacques Zoua misses out with injury, but Edgar Salli, the 21-year-old Lens winger, could play a part in Cameroon's midfield, which boasts experienced internationals such as Jean Makoun, Stephane Mbia and Alex Song.
Cameroon get their World Cup campaign under way against Mexico in Natal on June 13, before meeting Croatia and Brazil in Group A.
Cameroon 23-man World Cup squad:Goalkeepers: Charles Itandje (Konyaspor, Turkey), Sammy Ndjock (Fethiyespor, Turkey), Lioc Feudjou (Coton Sport)
Defenders: Allan Nyom (Granada), Nounkeu Dany (Besiktas), Cedric Djeugoue (Coton Sport), Aurelien Chedjou (Galatasaray), Nicolas Nkoulou (Marseille), Henri Bedimo (Lyon), Benoit Assou-Ekotto (QPR)
Midfielders: Enoh Eyong (Antalyaspor), Jean Makoun (Rennes), Joel Matip (Schalke 04), Stephane Mbia (Sevilla), Landry Nguemo (Bordeaux), Alexandre Song (Barcelona), Edgar Salli (Lens)
Forwards: Samuel Eto'o (Chelsea), Eric-Maxim Choupo-Moting (Mainz 05), Benjamin Moukandjo (Nancy), Vincent Aboubakar (Lorient), Pierre Achille Webo (Fenerbahce), Fabrice Olinga (Zulte Waregem)