Midfielder Henderson took time to prove his worth following his big-money move from Premier League rivals Sunderland in June 2011.
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Henderson has also secured a place in Roy Hodgson's England squad for the 2014 World Cup as a result of the progress he has made this season.
And he insists Rodgers should take great credit for his development.
Henderson told the Liverpool Echo: "I think I've improved from the start of the season until now.
"I feel as though I've become a better player in many areas. I've still got a long way to go, no doubt. But I feel as though I'm improving. I'm enjoying my football.
"The manager has helped me with a lot of things and hopefully I can keep working even harder to become better. If I do that, I’m sure I can keep going in the right direction and that's the same for the team.
"The manager has been key. He's been amazing for me personally and I'm sure that's the same for everybody else in the team as well.
"The things he can do on and off the pitch for the players is fantastic and he has a great relationship with us. That's just the type of person he is. He's a great manager and I’m sure everybody will want to thank him for this season."