The Peruvian centre-back will spend one year in La Liga after failing to breaking into the Europa League semi-finalists' starting line-up last season
The 28-year-old featured in just seven league games for the Portuguese side in 2011-12, after arriving from Sporting Braga, but has now moved to the Riazor in search of playing time.
Depor have been looking to build their squad after returning to La Liga after one season of second-tier foorball, and confirmed the loan signing on Friday via their social media platforms and official club website.
Since making his debut for Peru in 2003, Rodriguez has been capped 38 times by Peru and helped his nation to third place in the 2011 Copa America.
Rodriguez becomes Depor's third loan transfer this summer, having already signed Andre Santos, also from Sporting, as well as Braga winger Pizzi.