The 20-year-old has yet to make a first-team appearance for the Potters after moving from Birmingham in the January transfer window, before being immediately loaned back to St Andrew's.
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"Jack is an outstanding young talent but when we signed him it was on the understanding that he needed to continue his development by playing first team football on a regular basis," he told the club’s official website.
"We're pleased that such a good opportunity for Jack to go out on loan has presented itself and we’re sure it will be beneficial to both Jack and the club.
"We will be monitoring his progress closely at Barnsley and wish him every success during his time at Oakwell."
Butland could make his debut for the Tykes on Saturday when they face Leicester with first-choice goalkeeper Luke Steele currently out with a back injury.