Former Germany international Michael Ballack was arrested near Trujillo (Caceres) in the east of Spain on Wednesday afternoon.
The four-time Bundesliga champion (once with Kaiserlautern and three times with Bayern Munich) was allegedly caught doing speeds of around 211 kilometres per hour - almost double the legal limit on the Estremadura A-5 roadway - a charge which he denies.
A civil guard spokesman told AFP: "He was detained for excessive speed yesterday afternoon [Wednesday], near the town of Trujillo in eastern Spain."
Officials say the ex-Chelsea man then faced a judge Thursday morning where he denied the charges and is subject to face a €10,000 [£8,121] fee should he be found guilty.
The ex-Chelsea star retired from international and club football on October 3, scoring 42 goals in 98 appearances for his country.