Costel Pantillimon and Kasper Schmeichel both made crucial saves as the Foxes climbed out of the relegation zone despite again drawing a blank
Kasper Schmeichel saved well to deny Steven Fletcher and Adam Johnson in the first half as the Black Cats dominated proceedings.
But Gus Poyet had Costel Pantillimon to thank for his side claiming a point as the former Manchester City goalkeeper twice denied Matthew James after the break.
In a bid to end Leicester's barren run in front of goal, Nigel Pearson named an attack-minded XI, with Riyad Mahrez and Paul Konchesky coming in after the 2-0 loss at Southampton before the international break.
Mahrez was the focal point in the hosts' lively start and he orchestrated the first meaningful opening in the 13th minute with an intricate throughball that picked out Jeffrey Schlupp, whose shot from a tight angle hit the side-netting.
Sunderland were initially guilty of sloppy errors but they soon grew into the game and Fletcher - passed fit after missing Scotland's friendly defeat to England on Tuesday with a knock - was denied by a smart stop from Schmeichel when clean through against the Leicester goalkeeper.
Schmeichel was called into action again just before the half-hour mark when he got down well to keep out Johnson's low and dipping strike from 30 yards that would have found the bottom corner but for the shot-stopper's intervention.
The away side's pressure continued after the break and Fletcher could have scored when he fired over the crossbar from just inside the area from Sebastian Larsson's clever low corner in the 48th minute.
At the other end, Mahrez remained a threat and he fired into the side-netting from close range after his dazzling footwork had bamboozled Wes Brown.
Mahrez then saw claims for a penalty waved away by referee Robert Madley after the winger had been tripped by Anthony Reveillere, while Sunderland were perhaps lucky not to be reduced to 10 men just after the hour when Lee Cattermole - back in the team after suspension - clattered Esteban Cambiasso with a robust challenge.
The pace intensified as both teams looked for a winner and James should have done more to test Pantilimon when he was sent through on goal after a neat one-two with Leonardo Ulloa.
Gus Poyet's men also had chances, Schmeichel once again foiling Fletcher with a save at his near post after the striker broke down the left in the 70th minute.
David Nugent and Cambiasso were guilty of getting in each other's way in a promising position for Leicester late on, but there was no way through.