The Bianconeri coach was upset with the referee's refusal to award the Old Lady a second spot kick in the defeat, after Sebastian Giovinco had given his side the lead from 12 yards
The Turin giants took the lead midway through the first half when Sebastian Giovinco converted a spot kick, but they were seemingly denied a second penalty later on after a duel between Alessandro Matri and Angelo Palombo.
That allowed Mauro Icardi to strike twice and inflict a shock defeat on the reigning champions at Juventus Stadium, with Conte less than impressed after the full-time whistle.
"I think that it was a clear penalty. I am a coach and my opinion can be a bit coloured, but this was a spot kick. I don't know how neither the referee, nor the fourth official managed to spot it," the 43-year-old told reporters.
"Of course I am not satisfied with the result. I am never pleased when I lose. People who know me know that I hate to lose. We were ahead and deserved to win it.
"We have to reflect on this game and learn from our mistakes. Sampdoria did well to get back in the game, but we have ourselves to blame for the loss."
The Bianconeri remain first in Serie A with 44 points from 19 games.