The Belgium striker will no longer wear his side's armband after an altercation with supporters following the incident
The striker fired wide a 15th minute spot-kick as the Belgian outfit lost 2-0 to Waasland-Beveren, after which he lost his cool with fans.
At a press conference on Monday, the Belgium international apologised for his actions, despite claiming that his outburst was triggered by racist comments from supporters.
"Maybe I would not have reacted if I wasn't captain," Mboyo told reporters.
"To show that I shouldn't have done so, I will no longer wear the captain's armband."
The 25-year-old played youth football for Anderlecht and Club Brugge before serving three years in prison for his part in the gang rape of a teenage girl.
He was released in 2008 and made his international debut against Scotland in October, a call-up which sparked widespread controversy.