The Blues boss believes the Belgium international should be suspended for his part in Fernando Torres' sending off at White Hart Lane on Saturday
Gylfi Sigurdsson gave the hosts a first-half lead at White Hart Lane, but John Terry hit back in the second period and that proved to be enough to earn a point for the Blues.
However, there was controversy when Torres was sent off for two bookings on Vertonghen, and Mourinho was left angry about the second, with the Belgian going down holding his face despite apparently little contact from the forward.
The Chelsea boss called on the Premier League to take retrospective action against the defender and clear Torres of any wrongdoing.
He told BT Sport: "The team was very, very strong until the moment the referee made a mistake, a big mistake that had a big influence on the result. The referee is not guilty -- the player (Vertonghen) is guilty.
"He pretended that Fernando had a big contact on him and the referee went on trust. At that moment we were much better. They were in big trouble.
"We were winning everything in midfield and going in waves of attack - (Andre) Schurrle had just had a chance that normally he has to score. It leaves a bad taste because we should win.
"If I was boss of the (Premier League) committee I would give a one-match suspension to the Tottenham defender and nothing to Fernando."
Mourinho felt that a draw was also harsh on his side.
He added: "I don't think it was (fair). I think they were better in the first half but not much better, they didn't create so many chances. In the second half, there was only one team."