Wilshere has missed the entirety of the 2011-12 season due to an injury to his right ankle and will now face further treatment for an issue Arsenal describe as "long-standing".
The "slight issue" relates to Wilshere's patella tendon in his left knee but is not expected to have a significant impact on his ability to return to training in time for next season.
The England midfielder will travel to Sweden in the next few days for the procedure, before continuing his rehabilitation at Arsenal over the summer.
Wilshere established himself as an integral member of the Gunners' team during the 2010-11 season, making 49 appearances in all competitions despite being just 18 years of age at the beginning of the campaign.
His long spell on the sidelines stalled his progress, however, and ruled him out of the England squad for Euro 2012 in Poland and Ukraine.
It had been hoped that Wilshere could be involved in Great Britain's team for the 2012 London Olympics this summer, but Arsenal manager Arsene Wenger revealed that the playmaker may not even be fit for the start of the club's pre-season training in July.