The 25-year-old faces three weeks on the sidelines after suffering a muscle injury in BVB's pre-match training on Friday
Schmelzer has been ruled out for BVB's Champions League encounter against Marseille and league opponents Borussia Monchengladbach next weekend.
However BVB team doctor Markus Braun is optimistic that the Germany international could return for the Bundesliga encounter against Hannover in three weeks' time.
The 25-year-old has already made nine appearances in all competitions for Dortmund this season, going on to score one goal in the process.
During BVB's 5-0 rout over Freiburg, manager Jurgen Klopp called on 21-year-old Erik Durm to fill the void left by Schmelzer's injury.