The White Wolves have turned to the former national team coach to guide them to Brazil 2014, despite solid form in the third round of qualifying where they beat Japan
The announcement comes just days following the White Wolves' disappointing 1-0 home defeat to Iran in their opening final round 2014 World Cup qualifier.
Uzbekistan had qualified for the final phase top of their group which included Japan, but Abramov stepped down after the loss to Iran where the hosts dominated the chances only to concede a Mohammad Reza Khalatbari goal deep into stoppage-time.
Qosimov previously coached the national team during 2009 and 2010 when the team failed in the final round of 2010 World Cup qualifying.
The 41-year-old told reporters the appointment had been unexpected but added he had no hesitation in taking up the role following Abramov's decision.
The former Uzbekistan international had been coaching domestic giants Bunyodkor since, winning the 2010 and 2011 titles and guiding the club to the final eight of the 2012 AFC Champions League last week.
Qosimov, who said he will combine his role with Bunyodkor alongside his national team duties, has little time to prepare his side ahead of Friday's qualifier away to Lebanon.
The new boss has indicated he won't make changes to the coaching structure and said the team performed well against Iran and was unlucky, but will be boosted by the return of up to five players including 2011 AFC Player of the Year Server Djeparov following suspension.
Meanwhile, Fifa confirmed they wouldn't take any action after a legitimate goal from Odil Akhmedov in Sunday's 1-0 loss to Iran was disallowed by referee Yuichi Nishimura.
Akhmedov's close-range effort appeared to cross the line before Sayed Jalal Hosseini's clearance but the Japanese referee waved play on and the goal didn't stand. Abramov later revealed his disappointment at the decision.
A Fifa spokesperson told AFP: "The decisions of the referee regarding facts connected with play, including whether or not a goal is scored and the result of the match are final.
"The referee may only change a decision on realising that it is incorrect or, at his discretion, on the advice of an assistant referee or the fourth official, provided that he has not restarted play or terminated the match."