The Barcelona duo will undergo a minor operation on Friday as it emerges that both have been suffering from tonsillitis, while the Chelsea defender will have his nose repaired
The operation, which will be presided over by the club's medical staff, is expected to sideline the duo for an estimated nine days while they recover.
The Brazil international will go under the knife in Rio de Janeiro on Friday, while team-mate Alba will be operated on in Catalunya on the same day.
Both of Tito Vilanova's men came face-to-face for the Confederations Cup final on Sunday, from which the Selecao emerged as comprehensive 3-0 winners courtesy of a Neymar strike in between two goals from Fred.
The former Santos star, who arrived in Camp Nou for €57 million (£48.9m) earlier this summer, is expected to make his competitive debut for the Blaugrana in the Spanish Super Cup against Atletico Madrid on August 21.
The 21-year-old's international colleague, David Luiz, is also scheduled to undergo surgery in the coming days, with the Chelsea defender set for an operation on Thursday, having sustained a broken nose in Brazil's 2-0 victory over Mexico a fortnight ago.