The Magpies took another enormous step towards qualification from the group stages thanks to a victory over the Belgian side with a goal from Gabriel Obertan
The home side dominated the first half and created a number of chances, but striker Papiss Cisse in particular was wasteful in front of goal.
However, the Magpies took the lead shortly after half time through Gabriel Obertan before then holding onto their advantage to take all three points in front of their home fans.
Newcastle manager Alan Pardew made nine changes from the team that drew against Sunderland, with only Davide Santon and Cheick Tiote remaining.
Meanwhile, the Belgians had a number of absentees through injury, but Jesper Jorgensen was fit to start after recovering from a knock.
After a quiet start, the home side had a big appeal for a penalty turned down by the referee in the ninth minute after what appeared to be a push on Cisse.
The Magpies were dominating possession and should have gone ahead in the 13th minute, as a delightful cross from Shane Ferguson was headed goalward by Cisse, but Brugge goalkeeper Bojan Jorgacevic clawed the ball away.
As the first half continued, the home side continued to enjoy most of the ball, but were unable to create any more chances, while having to deal with occasional Brugge counter-attacks.
It took until the 30th minute for another opportunity and it fell once again to Newcastle, as some dazzling skill from young Sammy Ameobi saw him come forward alone before putting his shot wide of the post.
Cisse missed another superb chance in the 38th minute from a Ferguson corner, once again having a free header but this time putting the ball over the bar.
The Senegalese striker then brought down a wonderful cross from Tiote in the penalty area just three minutes later, but once again blazed over the bar.
However, despite a stinging shot from Cisse that Jorgacevic could only parry away, the half ended goalless, but with the home side looking more likely to break the deadlock.
Newcastle began the second half as they had ended the first, and took the lead just two minutes after the restart.
Some superb skill from Sammy Ameobi set Obertan away, and the Frenchman powered a superb low shot past Jorgacevic to give the home side the lead.
The home side had to be on their guard just a few minutes later, as Lior Refaelov forced a smart save from goalkeeper Steve Harper after tricking his way past several defenders.
Brugge then had a golden opportunity to equalise in the 62nd minute, after a superb cross from the impressive Maxime Lestienne was headed over the bar by Carlos Bacca from six yards out.
The home side continued to dominate possession and prevent their opponents from creating any further chances, but could not find that elusive second goal to kill the game off.
However, Newcastle held on for a very encouraging win, with a number of youngsters impressing as they remained unbeaten.