The Argentine goalkeeper produced a heroic performance at the Vicente Calderon to deny Diego Simeone's side the chance of winning the title at home on Sunday
Real Madrid are out of the picture, however, after losing 2-0 at Celta Vigo. Elsewhere, meanwhile, there were wins for Villarreal, Levante, Almeria, Getafe and Betis in the 37th round of matches.
Here, Goal looks at the standout performers from the latest Liga action.
As Barca only managed a draw at Elche, a win would have given Atletico the title at home on Sunday against Malaga, but Willy Caballero was in inspired form to deny the Rojiblancos victory in a 1-1 draw.
In defence, Mateo Musacchio was solid for Villarreal in their 4-0 win at home to Rayo Vallecano, while Sergio Escudero gave Getafe all three points over Sevilla in a 1-0 success and Marcelo did well in an otherwise disappointing performance from Madrid in Vigo.
Rafinha shone again for Celta as Luis Enrique's side moved up to eighth place, while Patxi Punal helped Osasuna win a point at Espanyol, Iker Muniain rescued a draw for Athletic Bilbao in the Basque derby against Real Sociedad and Verza was on target again to push Almeria towards safety with a 2-0 success at Granada.
In attack, Charles struck twice to give Celta all three points against Madrid, while Angel Rodriguez opened the scoring for Levante in their 2-0 derby win over Valencia and Javi Guerra was on target twice as Valladolid lost 4-3 at Betis.