Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo might be the dominant figures of 21st century football, but they are worth less than Tottenham duo Harry Kane and Dele Alli according to analysis by the International Centre for Sports Studies (CIES).
Messi's Barcelona team-mate Neymar comes out on top of the list compiled by the Swiss-based study centre, which estimates the value of the 110 most desirable players in Europe's top five leagues, using an algorithm based on analysis of almost 2,000 paying fee transfers.
Neymar is valued at €210.7million under criteria considering performance, club, international status, age, position and marketability.
However, Messi, who turns 30 later this month and is reportedly on the verge of extending his contract at Camp Nou, comes in fourth on €151.7m, with England internationals Alli and Kane pipping him on €155.1m and €153.6m respectively following superb seasons for Spurs.
Ronaldo is favourite to match Messi with a fifth Ballon d'Or at the end of the year, having inspired Real Madrid to LaLiga and Champions League glory.
However, the 32-year-old comes in at €112.4m in the CIES standings, below Antoine Griezmann, Luis Suarez, Paul Pogba, Gonzalo Higuain, Eden Hazard and Paulo Dybala.
Ronaldo is the oldest player on the list, with Monaco sensation Kylian Mbappe the youngest.
Despite being linked with a world record move to Real Madrid, Mbappe only registers €92.6m, ranking him below the likes of Manchester City's Raheem Sterling and Atletico Madrid's Yannick Carrasco.
Manchester United's often-derided move to make Pogba the most expensive player in the world represents value for money in the CIES figures, although the previous holder of that accolade – Real Madrid's Gareth Bale – finds himself down in 43rd position on €66.7m after an injury ravaged campaign.