The 32-year-old suffered a torn meniscus in his right knee during France's 4-2 friendly win over Russia this week and underwent surgery on Thursday.
It was first feared that Mathieu would miss the remainder of the club season and be unavailable for the Euros in France, which begin on June 10.
READ MORE | Mathieu to undergo surgery
However Barcelona expect him to be available again by the end of May, meaning he retains an outside chance of being available for Didier Deschamps' final squad.
"Barcelona defender Jeremy Mathieu has been operated on successfully," a club statement read. "The player will be out for approximately six to eight weeks."
Mathieu had earlier stated that his recovery would depend on the type of surgery Barca's medical team decided to proceed with.
"Either the meniscus is removed and I return quicker, or I it is stitched up and I have a small chance to recover [this season]," he said in an interview with L'Equipe.