The 30-year-old forward has not represented his country since Euro 2012 and, for the past season, has been plying his trade in the second tier of English football, the Championship, with Reading.
However, Pogrebnyak has been included in Capello's 30-strong preliminary panel for Brazil, making him the only foreign-based member of the squad, which must be reduced to 23 players by June 2.
Roman Pavlyuchenko is the most high-profile casualty of Pogrebnyak's shock recall after two years in the international wilderness, though the former Tottenham forward's Lokomotiv Moscow team-mate Dmitry Tarasov has also missed out.
Russia, who have been drawn in Group H alongside Belgium, South Korea and Alegria, will play friendlies against Slovakia, Norway and Morocco in the run-up to the World Cup.
Russia provisional squad for 2014 World Cup:
Goalkeepers: Igor Akinfeev (CSKA Moscow), Yuri Lodygin (Zenit), Sergei Ryzhikov (Rubin Kazan).
Defenders: Aleksandr Anyukov (Zenit), Aleksei Berezutski (CSKA Moscow), Vasili Berezutski (CSKA Moscow), Andrey Yeshchenko (Anzhi Makhachkala), Vladimir Granat (Dynamo Moscow), Sergei Ignashevich (CSKA Moscow), Dmitri Kombarov (Spartak Moscow), Alexei Kozlov (Dynamo Moscow), Georgi Schennikov (CSKA Moscow), Andrei Semenov (Terek Grozny).
Midfielders: Igor Denisov (Dynamo Moscow), Alan Dzagoev (CSKA Moscow), Viktor Fayzulin (Zenit), Yuri Gazinskiy (Krasnodar), Denis Glushakov (Spartak Moscow), Pavel Mogilevets (Rubin Kazan), Oleg Shatov (Zenit), Roman Shirokov (Krasnodar), Yuri Zhirkov (Dynamo Moscow).
Forwards: Vladimir Bystrov (Anzhi Makhachkala), Artem Dzyuba (Rostov), Alexei Ionov (Dynamo Moscow), Maxim Kanunnikov (Amkar Perm), Aleksandr Kerzhakov (Zenit), Aleksandr Kokorin (Dynamo Moscow), Pavel Pogrebnyak (Reading), Aleksandr Samedov (Lokomotiv Moscow).