Goals from Leander Dendoncker and Michael Heylen saw the Belgian giants qualify as group runners-up, but the north Londoners join them as one of the best third-placed teams
The north London outfit are one of four third-placed teams to have amassed enough points to reach the next round, at the expense of Marseille via goal difference.
Spurs enjoyed the majority of possession in the opening stages, evidently keen to gain the upper hand early on knowing just a point would see them advance to the knockout stages along with Barcelona.
The intimidating presence of holding midfielder Milos Veljkovic was dictating play for the home side with numerous through-balls for both right winger Roman Michael-Percil and adventurous left-back Grant Ward - who ran the length of the wing throughout.
This dominance nearly paid dividends twice inside 15 minutes when Michael-Percil got the better of Anderlecht left-back Jordan Lukaku to find both Shaquile Coulthirst and 15-year-old Joshua Onomah in space inside the area, but goalkeeper Davy Roef displayed good reactions to smother the danger.
The visitors struggled to cope with Spurs' superiority for the most part, but when they did manage to venture out of their own half, it was courtesy of their own bright right winger Nabil Jaadi cutting inside and finding strong centre-forward Nathan Kabasele.
As the first half drew to a close, Ward's tireless running almost drew the first goal when he darted down to the corner flag, cut inside and curled a right-footed effort around Roef and onto the inside of the post, only to see the ball spin away from goal.
Then, mere minutes late, the left-back produced an even better effort from 20 yards out that the goalkeeper claws out of the top corner. Both attempts indicative of Spurs' need for a hint of luck to push on and grab a deserved lead.
Anderlecht came out rejuvenated in the second half and started on the front foot through Jaadi and Alexandre De Bruyn combining smartly down the left channel before Mehdi Tarfi's. shot from the edge of the area flew high and wide.
But, unlike Spurs in the first half, the visitors made their chances count and took the lead around the hour mark when Leander Dendoncker was found in space inside the area to curl a neat effort around Lawrence Vigouroux and into the far top corner.
Play was interrupted 20 minutes from time when Nabil Bentaleb collided with captain Kevin Stewart, forcing the former to leave the field of play on a stretcher after receiving treatment on the pitch.
As the game entered the final 10 mins, Spurs were pushing for the equaliser needed to advance, by their adventurous play cost them when De Bruyne's through-ball found Kabasele striding into the area only to be felled by Vigouroux for the penalty.
Anderlecht skipper Michael Heylen stepped up and saw his tame side-footed effort saved, but De Bruyn cut the rebound back for the midfielder to slot home.
But it would be cheers from both benches come the full-time whistle as Anderlecht leap-frogged their opponents into second place, but both teams advance.