Roberto Mancini's side slumped to a 3-1 loss in the first leg of their Europa League last-16 tie at the Volkswagen Arena on Thursday.
Rodrigo Palacio put Inter in front after only five minutes, but Naldo equalised in the first half and Kevin De Bruyne's double put the Bundesliga side in command.
Juan Pablo Carrizo was arguably at fault for all three goals, but Mancini did not lay the blame with the Argentine goalkeeper - who is expected to be replaced by first-choice Samir Handanovic for the clash at San Siro this weekend.
Switzerland winger Shaqiri was left frustrated by the manner in which Inter surrendered their lead on and is eager to put that setback behind them by securing three points against Cesena.
He said in an interview with Mediaset Premium: "We played really well at the start but then they managed to get one against the run of play.
"It's unbelievable the things we're giving away. We have some great players and now we have to push on and look to the next match. We have to give it everything we've got and learn from the mistakes we made.
"If we can cut out them out, we can go a long way. But we really must cut them out."
Inter are without a win in their last three games in all competitions, but fought back from two goals down to draw 2-2 at 10-man Napoli last weekend.
Mancini's men are ninth in the table and will be expected to secure victory against a Cesena side who head to Milan on the back of claiming four points from their last two games against Udinese and Palermo.
Those two results have given Domenico Di Carlo's men a fighting of avoiding the drop, but they will need to improve their away form in order to stand a fighting chance of staying up.
Cesena, who are four points from safety, have won just once on the road this season - against beleaguered Parma back in January - and Di Carlo has injury concerns over the likes of Francesco Renzetti, Stefano Lucchini and Ze Eduardo amongst others.
Inter, who won 1-0 at Cesena in October, will be without defender Juan Jesus due to suspension.