The Dutch coach took over in October but a run of eight defeats in nine games has forced the Bundesliga club's board to relieve him of his duties as they sit five points adrift
The Dutchman, along with assistant Raymond Libregts, has been removed from his position following a run of eight defeats in nine fixtures, which have left the club five points adrift of guaranteed safety.
Under-23s coach Roger Prinzen will take charge of the squad for their remaining three matches, assisted by Marek Mintal.
Verbeek arrived at Nurnberg in October, taking on his first managerial role outside his native Netherlands, where he had spells in charge of Heracles, Heerenveen, Feyenoord and AZ, but found life difficult in the German top flight and picked up just five wins in 22 matches.
"After the recent run of defeats, we have intensively discussed the current, precarious situation several times to see which measures were necessary in order to be victorious in our three remaining games," chairman Martin Bader said in a statement.
"We are confident that this decision will help us find that extra something."
Turning his attention to interim boss Prinzen, Bader added: "Roger knows the team well and has already proven that he can help the team quickly in a serious situation.
"He is a positive trainer who approaches the job very realistically, but also with the necessary optimism."
Nurnberg visit Mainz on Saturday before hosting Hannover and closing the season at Schalke.