The Ghanaian-born midfielder’s time with the Gunners has been plagued with fitness issues, but he is keen to regain his form while helping the club push for promotion.
"I'm very happy to be here, I know Charlton is a good club which has been in the Premier League for a number of years," Frimpong told the club’s official website.
"At the moment they are in the Championship, but I am just here to get playing and help the team push up the table.
"The whole reason why I'm here is to play games. I have been injured and for me to come back and play straight away in the Arsenal team is a big ask.
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“The manager just told me to come here, play a few games until January and see what happens.
The 20-year-old midfielder will be desperate to emulate ex-Gunner Alex Song, who played for Charlton on loan before forcing himself into Arsene Wenger’s first team.
Frimpong added: "Hopefully I can follow in Alex's footsteps.
“He came here when Charlton were in the Premier League and he did very well to help the team.
“He improved his game and that is why after he left he went to play in the Arsenal first team. Hopefully I can follow in his footsteps and do the same thing."