The free agent played for Real Madrid and Tottenham before his year at the Britannia, and the defender will now return to the Riverside Stadium this summer on a three-year deal
The 32-year-old spent a solitary season at the Britannia Stadium after playing for two-and-a-half years at Tottenham.
Prior to his White Hart Lane days, the former England centre-back rejuvenated his reputation with Boro after an unsuccessful period with Real Madrid.
The defender is set for a return to the Riverside Stadium, where he also spent a portion his youth career before a switch to Elland Road.
"The pull of helping Boro back in the Premier League is very strong for me," Woodgate told the club's official website. "And from what I have seen of the current squad, I think it's achievable.
"Tony Mowbray explained his plans for next season and how he is building a team that wants to get back in the Premier League as soon as possible.
"I want to be part of that and if we can achieve promotion in my time here it will be a fantastic way to end my career.
"Tony also likes his teams to play football the right way, and that was also a big plus point for me. It's just a great feeling to come back to this football club."
The defender played 46 times for Boro before his January 2008 transfer to Spurs, and is the fourth player to arrive at the Riverside this summer, after Mowbray signed Grant Leadbitter, Stuart Parnaby and Christian Burgess.
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"I've been very impressed with Jonathan in my conversations with him and his passion for the football club stands out," Mowbray said.
"I don't need to eulogise about Jonathan's quality. He's played for some of the biggest clubs in the world. We need to build on that experience and the quality he brings to our squad."
He had previously cost the Teesside club £7 million to buy in 2007 after a loan spell from the Bernabeu.
However the club have secured his services on a free transfer this time as the defender is currently without a club following Tony Pulis' decision not to offer him a new contract.