The France midfielder stepped up to the role after regular skipper Fabricio Coloccini was ruled out with a back injury, but he was unable to lead the Magpies to victory as they lost out to an 85th minute Luke Moore strike.
Cabaye admitted that he would have swapped the captaincy for a victory at the Liberty Stadium but thanked manager Alan Pardew for the "honour" of wearing the armband.
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"For me it was fantastic, especially to receive the confidence from the manager for this role. It is a big thing.
"But nothing changed for me. I stayed relaxed, focused and I didn't want to be different just because I was captain.
"It was an honour for me but the main thing is the result and for my first time as Newcastle captain I lost the game. That is very disappointing."
Like Pardew, however, Cabaye took positives from Newcastle's performance and felt they deserved to take a share of the points back to the North East.
"We did the right things, especially in the second half, and we played well," the Frenchman insisted. "But at the end we lost the game because we conceded a silly goal.
"It was hard to begin with because they were at home and wanted to press is very high and play quickly.
"The second half, though, was very good for us because we played in their half, we kept the pressure on them and created good chances to score.
"Unfortunately we didn't manage that but we have to stay focused on the next game and keep working hard. We have got an important couple of matches [against Anzhi Makhachkala and Stoke] which everyone is looking forward to."