The England international midfielder was signed by Kenny Dalglish last summer for £20 million from Sunderland but struggled to make an impact at the Reds, scoring just twice all season.
Despite his poor start, the 22-year-old feels he will be a better player for the experiences he endured in the last campaign.
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"Admittedly there were also a lot of ups and downs but I learnt a lot and I became a man in that time.
"I've just got to use all the experience that I gained in that year and hopefully this can be a better year for me.
"I look to kick on every season. This season is no different."
Henderson was a surprise inclusion in England manager Roy Hodgson's squad for Euro 2012 after Frank Lampard had to pull out of the tournament.
He feels his selection gave him confidence in himself that he can perform at international level but is looking to build on that and win more caps for his country.
"I was delighted when the call came," he said. "It was a massive experience.
"Being there with these types of players gives you more confidence when you go and play at the highest level.
"It gave me a lot of confidence, so let's hope I can use that and just keep pushing forward."
The former Sunderland man believes there is a lot more competition for places at Anfield this season following the signings of Fabio Borini and Joe Allen, which he feels can only benefit the club.
"It is a challenge but there are other great players here as well. A player like Allen coming in only strengthens the squad and adds extra competition for everybody in training," he added.
"I just need to work hard and try and get into the team first. I need to make sure I train well and that come the weekend, the manager can't leave me out."