The former Newcastle man has returned to west London after the Premier League side rejected a loan offer from the League Two club, and the 29-year-old said he enjoyed his stay
Barton will serve a 12-game suspension at the start of the Premier League season for violent conduct on the closing day against Manchester City, and was training with Fleetwood to maintain his fitness.
The 29-year-old said via Twitter: "Fleetwood adventure is over. I loved every minute of it. Great club. Good luck to @capboy70 [Fleetwood chairman Andy Pilley], Mickey and a great set of lads for the season."
The move would have reduced the timescale of the ban that Barton has to serve and see him return to Premier League action at the end of September instead of November.
Barton has spent pre-season training with the League Two new boys and following the news Fleetwood manager Micky Mellon confirmed that he has ended his pursuit of the former Manchester City and Newcastle player.
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"Joey has gone back to QPR, his influence in and around the football club was nothing more than fantastic," Mellon told Sky Sports.
"[He is] a great lad, up to standard for us, players saw how hard you have to work to be a Premier League footballer.”
"Nothing but positives came from the time we had with Joey. We always knew it was going to come to an end at some stage.
"We did try and get him on loan. QPR did not want to do that. He has gone back to QPR and we wish Joey all the best. He will always be a friend of this football club."