The 20-year-old started every game for Stuart Pearce's side as they crashed out at the quarter-final stage on penalties to South Korea, after drawing 1-1 in regulation time.
The centre-back has been with the north London club since coming through the youth team in 2007, but has yet to make a first-team appearance in the Premier League, being loaned out to Yeovil Town, Bristol City and Swansea in the past three seasons.
|7/4||Tottenham are 7/4 to finish in the Premier League top four next season with William Hill|
"The Olympics has been the perfect way for me to show the new manager what I can do and to make sure I am not out of sight," Caulker told the Daily Star.
"He [Villas-Boas] seems a very interesting guy with lots of great ideas.
"It's a big positive for the club and he seems to put his trust in the young lads."