The Belgian outfit have turned down the chance to sign the former Liverpool and Paris Saint-Germain midfielder following a two-week trial
The former Liverpool and Juventus midfielder has been a free agent since September, after his contract with Paris Saint-Germain was terminated by mutual consent.
Despite the midfielder training for two weeks with the Belgian Pro League champions, the 28-year-old has failed to secure a permanent contract.
"Although Mohamed Sissoko could mean added value for RSCA due to his experience and leadership, we unfortunately have no agreement," general manager Herman van Holsbeeck said in a statement on Anderlecht's official website.
Sissoko made 37 appearances during his spell at PSG and also spent time out on loan at Fiorentina last season before his contract was terminated.