The Brazilian had extended his contract with the Blaugrana until 2016 last month and will now be afforded the chance of significant first-team football with Luis Enrique's side, with each team confirming the deal on their official website.
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"Before the midfielder signed his new contract, he showed his disposition to join another Liga team on loan in the hopes of enjoying more playing time in Spain's top flight.
"At Celta, Rafinha will join up with former team-mates Fontas and Nolito.
"The midfielder, 20 years old, was one of Eusebio [Sacristan]'s go-to men throughout the 2012-13 season, where he played a total of 36 matches in the league, 35 of which as a starter. He scored 10 goals for Barca B."
Rafinha, who has represented both Spain and Brazil at youth level, has been part of the Barcelona set-up since the age of 13.