The 22-year-old has joined from the Portuguese Liga outfit on a four-year deal after manager Neil Lennon had him scouted.
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"I'm proud to sign for Celtic and want to do everything I can to take this opportunity, work hard and grow as a player."
Prior to Balde's signing was made official, Lennon had explained: "He is a player we have scouted and looks the type we would like."
Balde joined Vitoria last summer on a two-year deal following his release by fellow Portuguese side Sporting Lisbon and scored nine goals in 27 appearances.
During his contract at Lisbon he was loaned to Santa Clara in the Portuguse second division, Badajoz in the Spanish third division and Cercle Brugge in Belgium's Premier League.