The midfielder recently became the club's record goalscorer before signing a new deal, but admitted he thought he would be on the way out of Stamford Bridge this summer.
The 34-year-old recently became the club's all-time leading goalscorer before captaining the team to victory in the Europa League final, and signing a one-year contract extension.
Speculation linked the midfielder with a move to places such as Manchester United and the LA Galaxy among others, and Lampard revealed he could not face the prospect of playing against Chelsea.
"It wouldn't have been in the Premier League," Lampard told talkSPORT. "I think there was a couple of opportunities but I can't imagine playing for anyone else [in England] after 12 years at Chelsea.
"I've got a lot of respect for Premier League clubs but I'm not sure I could have done that."
However, Lampard admitted that it looked likely he could leave west London this summer.
"In January it looked like I might be leaving," he added. "I'd been injured, to be fair to the club, for nearly two months. The manager changed and there wasn't stability at the club - they were looking to the future.
"I would say that from January to March/April I thought this would be my last season at Chelsea."
Lampard also hinted that he may not retire at the end of next season, even if his time at Chelsea does come to an end at the end of his new deal.
"I feel like I can keep playing at the top for another two or three years," he said.